T1D cohort

The goal of this cohort is to compare microbiome in infants who have developed type 1 diabetes (T1D) or serum autoantibodies (markers predicting the onset of T1D) with healthy controls in the same area.

This is a prospective, longitudinal analysis of developing gut microbiome in infants en route to type 1 diabetes. Infants from Finland and Estonia were recruited at birth based on predisposition to autoimmunity determined by human lekocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. Parents collected their infants’ stool at approximately monthly intervals and promptly stored the sample in the freezer prior to shipment for sample processing and sequencing. The cohort consists of 33 infants, 11 of which seroconverted to serum autoantibody positivity and of those, four developed T1D within the three year time-frame of this study.

You can download various data generated in this project using the Resource pages. In file names, this cohort is referred as t1d in comparison to other cohorts, such as the three country cohort.

For information about our findings, read Broad news story about this study.


Kostic et al. The Dynamics of the Human Infant Gut Microbiome in Development and in Progression toward Type 1 Diabetes. Cell Host & Microbe (2015). doi:10.1016/j.chom.2015.01.001

The NCBI BioProject ID for these data is PRJNA231909

Resource Pages 2

  • 16S sequence data

    16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence data can be downloaded using the data table below. The data are paired-end sequences of V4 region of the gene generated using...

  • Metagenomic sequence data

    Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing data can be downloaded using the data table below.

    Subject metadata related to these samples can be downloaded using the buttons...